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4Kscore - Based Prostate Cancer Smart Screening Analysis
Considering 4Kscore? High 4Kscore? | Before prostate cancer biopsy: analyze your PSA trend, use new screening technology and consider smart screening strategy analysis.
PSA is the prostate-specific antigen blood test measured in ng/mL that reflects prostate conditions.
Learn more about your elevated or high PSA test level:
Free PSA is the component of PSA not bound to proteins ("free") measured in ng/mL.
Free PSA % is the ratio of Free PSA to PSA that is used with elevated or high PSA test levels to increase screening effectiveness. See our Free PSA page that opens in a new window.
To improve on PSA screening for prostate cancer, OPKO Health, Inc. provides 4Kscore as a Laboratory Developed Test (LDT) through its BioReference Laboratories and GenPath Diagnostics, which are CLIA-Certified and CAP-Accredited laboratories that process your blood.
Learn more about Prostate Smart Screening for Cancer at our home page in a new window
Take Next Steps to Develop Your Smart Screening Strategy
- Understand your "Underlying" "True" 4Kscore and elevated or high PSA.
- Why does 4Kscore improve PSA screening effectiveness?
- Interpret your 4Kscore, elevated or high PSA and prostate volume.
- Analyze your elevated or high PSA trend and high 4Kscore trend.
- Compare 4Kscore to other enhanced tests - blood or urine.
- Develop Prostate Smart screening strategy for your 4Kscore.
1. Understand Your "Underlying" "True" 4Kscore and Elevated or High PSA
An elevated PSA (less than 5.0) or a high PSA (greater than 5.0) provide early warning of prostate activity for a smart prostate cancer screening strategy. (Links take you to one of our website pages that opens in a new window.)
A corresponding high 4Kscore provides additional early warning because high 4Kscore is directly associated with higher probabilities of prostate cancer found by biopsy.
Your "Underlying" "True" PSA and 4Kscore are the values that your physicians should use to assess your risk with the help of prostate cancer risk calculators or rules of thumb about threshold level of concern. Learn about risk calculators in the Blog post: Use prostate cancer risk calculators to avoid premature biopsy that opens in a new window.
Your "True" PSA is Hybritech calibrated and adjusted for specific medications to treat prostate enlargement (BPH). See the Blog post: Elevated PSA? Is your "True" PSA higher? that opens in a new window.
Your "True" 4Kscore needs no adjustment because it is a proprietary calculation of probability.
Your "Underlying" "True" PSA test level may be lower than your most recent "True" elevated PSA value because of temporary infection, inflammation or aggravation of your prostate. See the Blog post: Elevated PSA? Is your "Underlying" PSA lower? that opens in a new window.
Your "Underlying" "True" 4Kscore may be lower than your most recent "True" 4Kscore for the same reasons, especially Infections of the prostate and urinary tract that tend to decrease the Free PSA % component of 4Kscore when they increase PSA.
Follow-up testing is highly recommended for a long enough period for a possible infection to clear. See the Blog post: "Underlying" Free PSA, Prostate Health Index (PHI), 4Kscore, PCA3 in a new window.
2. Why Does 4Kscore Improve PSA Screening Effectiveness?
4Kscore improves prostate cancer screening effectiveness compared to PSA alone by incorporating PSA, Free PSA, Intact PSA [proprietary] and hK2 [prostate-specific marker] blood test results into a formula with other variables. Each test responds differently to prostate cancer and non-cancer prostate conditions, and the different responses improve prostate cancer screening.
3. Interpret Your 4Kscore, Elevated or High PSA and Prostate Volume
For any PSA level, the probability of cancer increases as 4Ksccore increases.
What Is the Probability of Significant Cancer for PHI and PSA Levels?
4Kscore is an estimate of the probability a biopsy will find high grade (aggressive) prostate cancer that is Gleason score 7 or greater. Risk calculator operation is not required and not available.
The graph on the right shows the one-to-one relationship between the probability of high grade cancer and 4Kscore. In addition, it sets the stage for estimating and graphing the potential influence of prostate volume on the interpretation of 4Kscore, as shown in the next section. We use the highly regarded ERSPC Risk Calculator, which estimates the probability of significant prostate cancer (high-grade and large low-grade) and the probability of any prostate cance.
What Is the Probability of Significant Cancer for PHI and Prostate Volume?
We focus next on the implications of 4Kscore and prostate volume for men with no other risk factors. For PSA 6.0, the graph on the right plots the estimated probability high grade prostate cancer will be found by biopsy as a function of 4KScore for three prostate volumes estimated by digital rectal exam (DRE): small (25cc), medium (40cc) and large (60cc). The estimated "what if" dashed lines are generated using the 4Kscore graph above as a reference and matching ERSPC Risk Calculator results to it for a medium-size prostate (40cc) and 6.0 PSA by varying the analogous Prostate Health Index (PHI). This first step produces the dashed purple line. Then the ERSPC-RC is rerun for the same variables for small (25cc) and large (60cc) prostates to produce the red and blue lines.
Notice that the probabilities are much higher for a small prostate (the top red line) than for a large prostate (the bottom blue line). The probability of cancer is lower for large prostates because they tend to produce more PSA that "explains" elevated levels of PSA.
The dramatic difference in risk for small and large prostates demonstrates why it is so important to consider prostate volume for elevated PSA levels. The risk level of 10% is the same at 6% 4Kscore for a small prostate as at 15% 4Kscore for a large prostate. Full interpretation of 4Kscore should depend on prostate volume, even if done crudely.
Ask your physician to estimate your prostate volume by digital rectal exam (DRE). Ask for a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) to measure your prostate volume more accurately before considering a biopsy. To learn more see our Ultrasound-Based Prostate Cancer Smart Screening Analysis page in a new window.
4. Analyze Your Elevated or High PSA Trend and High 4KScore Trend
Analysis of your PSA trend and 4Kscore trend can provide valuable insights. See our Analyze Your Elevated or High PSA Trend and Free PSA % Trend page and our "Underlying" Free PSA, Prostate Health Index (PHI), 4Kscore, PCA3 Blog post in new windows.
Free PSA and PSA are two of the four key test components of 4Kscore. Although the effects of infection on 4Kscore have not been studied, there is analysis of the effects of infection on PSA and Free PSA %.
For example, some men experience periodic infections of the prostate or urinary tract that cause their PSA to increase temporarily and their Free PSA % to decrease temporarily It would be a big mistake to use a temporarily increased PSA and decreased Free PSA % to assess underlying prostate cancer risk or estimate growth rate in PSA from cancer.
5. Compare 4Kscore to Other Enhanced Tests - Blood or Urine
Enhanced blood tests used with prostate cancer risk calculators can substantially improve prostate cancer screening effectiveness compared to PSA alone. We describe and compare six combinations of enhanced blood and urine tests and risk calculators. See our Compare PSA, Free PSA, PHI, 4Kscore, PCA3 page in a new window for our full comparison.
4Kscore is one of several enhanced test alternatives for prostate cancer screening.
Free PSA and PHI blood tests and PCA3 urine test are alternative enhanced tests that you can learn about in new windows.
Six Enhanced Test Combinations for Elevated and High PSA Test Levels (T1 to T6)
We consider six enhanced test combinations of blood and urine tests and risk calculators:
The one 4Kscore enhanced test combination (T5) is described below:
T5. 4Kscore Blood Tests, Calculation and Report
OPKO Health, Inc. provides 4Kscore through its BioReference Laboratories and GenPath Diagnostics as a Laboratory Developed Test (LDT), which are CLIA-Certified and CAP-Accredited laboratories.
Comparison of Enhanced Test Combinations for Elevated and High PSA Test Levels
We compare the six enhanced test combinations in five ways:
See our Compare PSA, Free PSA, PHI, 4Kscore, PCA3 page in a new window for our full comparison.
Summary Comparison and Suggestions for Elevated or High PSA
There are three best enhanced test options with ranking based on what is important to you. Consideration of prostate volume (or not) is the biggest difference between PHI with ERSPC Risk Calculator using prostate volume and other alternatives.
If you are willing to operate the ERSPC Risk Calculator (and especially if either cost or consideration of prostate volume and TRUS ultrasound results are important to you) then consider:
If you are not willing to operate the ERSPC Risk Calculator and cost is not important to you then consider:
If you are not willing to operate the ERSPC Risk Calculator and cost is important to you then consider:
If you are concerned about operating the ERSPC Risk Calculator, we encourage you to enlist the help of a daughter, son, spouse or friend or even pay a student with computer skills.
Alternatively, we can operate the ERSPC Risk Calculator for you and create a full smart prostate cancer screening strategy report for you. Learn more about Prostate Smart Screening for Cancer at our home page in a new window.
6. Develop Your Prostate Smart Screening Strategy for Your 4Kscore
For men who want to lead a collaborative team effort rather than be a passive patient.
Prostate Smart analysis helps you create your strategy with your collaborative team of physicians and confidants to minimize your risks of:
> Regrettably late diagnosis of deadly cancer:
> Premature biopsy, diagnosis, treatment and side effects:
Analysis is needed to create the best personal screening strategy for you because:
We analyze published studies and present the implications for personal decisions. Studies are from: Mayo Clinic, Cleveland Clinic, Johns Hopkins, Memorial Sloan Kettering, NIH, NYU, UCLA, UC London, Yale and more.
Learn more about PSA-Based Prostate Smart Screening Strategy Analysis in a new window.
Return to Prostate Smart Screening for Cancer home page.